Backflow Preventer Overview Backflow – How It Works And Why You Need It

Backflow Preventer Overview Backflow How It Works And Why You Need It Pr

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Backflow preventers are a crucial part of any irrigation system. To understand what a backflow preventer is, there are some key terms that need to be understood.

A Cross-Connection

is any connection between a potable (drinkable) water system and any system containing nonpotable water, pollutants, or toxins. An example of where a cross-connection would exist is the piping between consumers water systems and an auxiliary water system, a cooling system, or an irrigation system.


is defined as any unwanted reversal of the flow of liquids, solids, or gases in a piping system. Backflow in an irrigation application is when water from the sprinkler system travels upstream through the pipes and enters the potable water system through a cross-connection.

Back Pressure

is when the pressure downstream of the backflow devices exceeds the supply (or upstream) pressure. This can occur if the supply pressure is reduced, or if the pressure downstream is increased.

Back Siphonage

occurs when a vacuum is created upstream of the backflow device, and water is literally sucked back up the system. Back siphonage can happen when the water supply is stopped due to a water main break or nearby fire hydrant use.

Backflow Preventers

are mechanisms designed to prevent contaminants from entering the potable water system in the event of back pressure or back siphonage.

Most homes have only one system for both potable and irrigation water, instead of two separate systems to avoid the risks associated with a cross-connection. Because there is no separation, there is a risk that everything running through your sprinkler system (fertilizers, pesticides, and herbicides, as well as anything that has seeped into the ground, such as animal waste) will backflow into your potable water system. The only way to prevent this from happening is the use of some type of backflow prevention device. The shutoff valves included in sprinkler systems are not enough to prevent backflow.

Most areas require the use of backflow preventers on all water systems, but even if your area doesn’t have these building codes, they’re a mandatory precaution for a health-conscious person.

Helpful Links:

How To Fix Water Hammer And Air In Pipes Troubleshooting

How To Fix Water Hammer And Air In Pipes Troubleshooting Pr

It is important that you locate the problem before you start trying to fix the noise. Noises in pipes can be from many different things not just water hammer. Air in pipes is often confused with water hammer. Several other contributors to noises are water meters that are under sized for your system, pipes that are changing temperature when water flows through them, and water pressure higher than 60 PSI.

Is It Water Hammer Or Air In The Pipes?

If the noise occurs when you open a valve or faucet, it is probably air in the pipes. If it occurs when a valve closes it is probably water hammer. If it happens when a pump starts, it could be air in the pipes and/or water hammer.

Water Hammer Diagram

Water Hammer Diagram

The Following Are Signs Of Water Hammer:

  • If the noise occurs when a valve closes
  • Noise when the pump starts
  • If you hear quick repeated bumps or a loud thump followed by silence

The Following Are Signs Of Air In The Pipes:

  • Noise unrelated to a valve opening or closing
  • Noise when a pump starts
  • Vibrating or prolonged noises

Fixing Water Hammer:

  • The easiest method to fix water hammer is to lower the water pressure for your entire irrigation system. It will not get rid of all of the water hammer, but it will sometimes reduce it to a level you can live with.
  • If you have an automatic system, you may be able to rid water hammer by simply changing the order in which the valves operate. Simply find out which valve uses the least water. This will probably be the one with the least amount of sprinklers, but not always. Once you figure it out, rewire the controller so that the valve that uses the least water is the last valve to run.
  • Water Hammer Arrestor

    Water Hammer Arrestor

    Try a water hammer arrestor. This mostly only works with just water hammer caused from washing machines and dishwashers. But it is worth a try with sprinkler related water hammer. Install it per the instructions on the package and try putting it on a hose bib to the point where the irrigation system connects to the house water. If you have a hose bib on the irrigation system mainline, that is an even better place. Or you can tap into the irrigation mainline to install it. If it does not work, remove it and return it to the store where you purchased it.

  • The valve may be too small. Therefore, try reducing the water velocity by:
    • If the valve is one size smaller than the pipe then there is a chance that the valve is the problem. Cheaper valves often snap closed faster than more costly ones. It might be a good idea to replace the valve.
    • Splitting valve zones is another good way to rid water hammer. If only one of the irrigation valves is causing water hammer, the easiest solution is to reduce the amount of water that valve is using. That will reduce the velocity and the water hammer should stop. You then need to reduce the amount of sprinkler heads the valve operates. The easiest way to do that is to installing a second valve and connect half the sprinklers to it.
    • Check all of the pipes that your water passes through on the way from the water main to the valves to see if there is a “bottleneck” – a section of pipe that is smaller than the others. You will need to check the gooseneck, the house water supply pipe and the irrigation mainline. As soon as you find one that is smaller than the rest, replace that with a larger pipe.
    • To determine the size of the pipe, grab a piece of string about 6″ (152mm) long. Measure how many inches of string it takes to go around the pipe once. The string length is the circumference of the pipe. Using the circumference you can find your pipe size below:

House with a view of the possible bottle necks to check for water hammer.

For Copper and PEX Tube and Pipe
Circumference Pipe Size
2.75″ (70mm) 3/4″ pipe
3.53″ (90mm) 1″ pipe
4.32″ (110mm) 1 1/4″ pipe
5.10″ (130mm) 1 1/2″ pipe
For Steel Pipe or PVC Plastic Pipe
Circumference Pipe Size
3.25″ (83mm) 3/4″ pipe
4.00″(102mm) 1″ pipe
5.00″(127mm) 1 1/4″ pipe
6.00″(152mm) 1 1/2″ pipe
For Flexible Polyethylene Pipe
Circumference Pipe Size
2.96-3.33″ (75-85mm) 3/4″ pipe
3.74-4.24″ (95-108mm) 1″ pipe
4.90-5.57″ (124-141mm) 1 1/4″ pipe
5.70-6.28″ (145-160mm) 1 1/2″ pipe

Fixing Air In Pipes:

Two methods for removing air from pipes is to release the air by opening the pipe or increase the water speed and force the air out.

Flow control handle on a Sprinkler System Valve

Use The Flow Control Handle To Open And Close The Valve

  • To force the air out you must increase the water velocity to the point that it pushes out the air bubbles. To increase the velocity by creating a high water demand you can achieve this by turning on as many water outlets as possible. The resulted high velocity causes the water to rush through the pipes forcing the trapped air out of the pipe.
  • To increase the water velocity in a mainline to remove the air you need to manually open two or more of the circuit valves at once. You will need to let the water run for awhile in order to force all of the air out. Make sure to close the valves one at a time. A pressure surge can be caused if you close them at the same time and the surge could damage your irrigation system.
  • Faucet with running water. To increase the water velocity in a lateral pipe you must remove some of the sprinklers from the valve circuit. Locate and remove the three sprinkler heads that are the furthest from the circuit valve. Once they are removed open the valve and flush out the air. If that does not solve it try removing more sprinkler heads. Once the air is flushed out put the sprinkler heads back on. If your problem persists after the next cycle your sprinkler heads could be at different heights causing the water to drain out of the pipes through the sprinkler heads. If the water drains out it causes air to get into the pipes. If this becomes a problem you need to install check valves at the inlets of your sprinklers. The check valves do not affect your sprinklers it pushes the water back so it does not drain out. A lot of manufactures are making sprinklers with check valves built in.
  • Another place where air can be located in is your household pipes. To remove the air, turn on all your faucets and flush all of your toilets. Wait a few minutes to allow the air to move out. Turn off the faucets one at a time, starting with the one closet to the location your water supply enters your house. As you approach a toilet flush it again and wait two additional minutes before you close another faucet.

How To Replace Your Water Supply Line

How To Replace Your Water Supply Line Pr

Girl drinking water out of glass.

If you are considering doing repairs on your main water supply line, it is important to contact your homeowners’ association or water supplier, as many areas require you to obtain special permits before doing any work on your main water line.

The main water supply line provides all the water to your house, including drinking water, so it is crucial to keep dirt out while you are working on it. Once you complete the project, make sure you turn on all of your water faucets for several minutes in order to flush out all debris.

Use the diagram to identify the different parts of your water supply line, including the corporation stop, which is the boundary between your supply line and the water supplier’s line. If the pipe needing repairs is not on your side of the corporation stop, contact your water supplier and have them provide the repairs.

Main Water Supply Line Example.

  • A) Water Main Line
  • B) Service Line AKA “Gooseneck”
  • C) Corporation Stop
  • D) Supply Pipe

Should You Add A Second Pipe Or Replace The Original?

If your water meter is installed right next to the corporation stop, or you don’t have a water meter:

  • You can tap into the existing water supply pipe right after the water meter. Then install a new larger size pipe. The pipe leading to the sprinkler system would be the “new” supply line, using the revised gpm from the table below. The existing line and flow to the house would remain unchanged. Only the sprinkler system would be affected.
  • OR you can tap into the existing supply pipe rigth after the corporation stop/water meter and install a new second pipe to the house parallel to it. About a foot out from the house, connect the new pipe back into the old, smaller pipe leading into the house. This creates two supply pipes side-by-side to the house, with water flowing through both. This method can sometimes create problems, therefore, it is not recommended by most professionals.
  • OR remove the existing water supply pipe between the corporation stop/water meter and the house and replace it completely with a new, larger pipe. About a foot out from the house connect the new pipe to the old, smaller pipe leading to the house like the method above. This is the most commom method used.

Water Meter Size

New Replacement Pipe Size Maximum Available GPM when a new supply pipe is installed
Using new SCH 40 PVC supply pipe Using new PE (SDR-7) supply pipe Using new Type L copper supply pipe Using new PEX supply pipe
5/8″ 1″ 15 GPM 15 GPM 15 GPM 15 GPM
3/4″ 1″ 17 GPM 17 GPM 17 GPM 17 GPM
3/4″ 1 1/4″ 20 GPM 20 GPM 20 GPM
1″ 1 1/4″ 33 GPM 32 GPM 27 GPM

Backflow: Causes and Preventative Measures

Backflow Causes And Preventative Measures Stopping Contamination Pr

When relying on a water company to provide you with clean water, most residents assume this is easy to achieve. But could you imagine finding out that you did not just have the usual flu that was running around, but had been poisoned by the very water you pay for? This would most likely be a case of backflow, which simply put is when water in an irrigation system, instead of flowing out, flows back in, carrying with it contamination from whatever was around the output source. This doesn’t have to be sewage; it could also be worms, debris, etc. Backflow devices keep instances like this from happening. When it comes to irrigation many toxins could be getting into the system; animal waste, pesticides, and fertilizer are all common examples of why backflow devices are required.


Major Offenders

The two major offenders of backflow are backsiphonage and backpressure. Backpressure materializes when a system’s pressure is superior to that of the city’s supply pressure. Typically occurring because of changes in piping elevation caused by pumps, or thermal expansion caused by a water heater, backpressure can be easily avoided by following a few simple steps.

A water heater’s thermal expansion is the most frequent cause of backpressure. The water heater is directly connected to the cold water line, and as we all know when something heats it also expands. If the pressure is even a small amount greater than the city’s supply pressure, you will have backpressure.

Backsiphonage is caused by a below average atmospheric pressure inside of a water system. Simply put, backflow happens when the pressure in a city’s water main becomes negative. Almost like the water supply is being sucked out of your house, backsiphonage is cause by high water withdrawal rates. One example of backsiphonage is if a construction crew is working and directly hits the city’s water main. The hose that is attached and submerged in toxic water at a local home will want to suck up any liquid causing the water to move to a lower pressure area, thus poisoning the city’s water.


Different Backflow Devices

Depending on the circumstances, installing a backflow device will require knowing whether the situation is considered a high-hazard or a low-hazard situation.

  • High-hazard– High-hazard means that any person consuming that fluid could be poisoned. Irrigation is always considered a high hazard because of the chemicals and wastes on the ground.
  • Low-hazard- Low-hazard would be a liquid that has a strange taste, color or smell. Low-hazard is drinkable but will not be pleasant to the senses.


Backflow devices have a tendency to be overlooked when installed; some customers will put them in without considering elevation, or even not reading the instructions properly and installing them backwards. Owner of Sprinkler Warehouse, Steve Okelberry suggested inquiring to the local AHJ before installing since they will have a recommendation as to where to place your backflow. Since the AHJ needs to inspect your backflow device annually, it is important that the AHJ have easy access. Having it placed ten feet off the ground because you need to compensate for elevation is not going to work when adjustments or repairs need to be made. The AHJ will inform you on which type of device to use for any project you might have, as well as where to place it. **Always check with the local authorities before installing any type of backflow device.**

How to Choose an Irrigation Controller

Recommended Irrigation Controllers From Sprinkler Warehouse Pr

Web Based Timers– Example: Irrigation Caddy S1– Web based controller that can connect to Wi-Fi or an Ethernet cable, 9 zones, 5 start times, and is rain sensor compatible. Your controller can be controlled from your PC, tablet, or mobile device. No special software is required.

Battery Operated Controller– Example: Irritrol IBOC-12PLUS 12 Station Outdoor Sprinkler Timer– Sets up to 12 stations, comes with solar and battery powered options, and built-in surge protection. Battery operated controllers can be used for residential or commercial use or for sprinkler and drip irrigation systems.

Standard Controllers– Example: Hunter PCC1200 12 Zone Outdoor Sprinkler Timer w/ Internal Transformer– Up to 12 stations and 12+ run times per day can be set up, weather sensor ready and could be used for large commercial applications. Simple and cost effective, standard controllers are a great option for those installing a basic sprinkler system.

Irrigation controllers can use weather conditions to determine how much water to apply and when to run your sprinkler system. Little monitoring is required, and it can help you save up to 25% of the water that you would apply by a traditional controller.

Most irrigation controllers vary in their complexity, but are relatively simple to install and operate. Installation requires some basic electrical knowledge and can be accomplished by most homeowners in as little as twenty minutes or as much as three hours. Sprinkler timers come in a wide range of makes and models. It is important to choose your timer based on the size of the sprinkler system and any specific landscape requirements.

Three major factors that should affect your selection of a sprinkler timer:

Zone/Station Quantity- You need to decide how many zones are in your irrigation. The timer you select must be able to operate at least as many zones as your sprinkler system is broken into.

Location – You have to decide where you want your controller mounted– indoors or outdoors

Desired Number of Programs- A minimum of two programs is recommended for programming flexibility; you may want more for increased flexibility. Most sprinkler timers come in single, two, three, or four-program designs.

Additional Features:

  • Remote: Many of the major irrigation companies such as Hunter, Irritrol, and Rain Bird carry compatible remotes that you can use up to 2 miles away to operate your system without all the walking back and forth.
  • Seasonal Watering Adjustment: Most timers have seasonal scheduling options, in addition to daily, weekly, and monthly scheduling.
  • Memory: If you live in an area where power outages are common occurrences, battery backup is highly recommended, which will store programming indefinitely without power.
  • Self-Diagnostics: Some timers include water fluctuation compensating diagnostic programs or short-circuit protection.
  • Rain Sensor: A great water-conserving feature for sprinkler timers is a rain sensor, when precipitation is detected watering is suspended temporarily.

**As a matter of personal preference many additional features and options may be available that you can choose but are not critical to your sprinkler system functioning properly.**

Here are a few links to help you make the best decision for your lawn:

Sprinkler Timers

Drip Irrigation Timers

Battery Operated Controllers

Types of Timers

Choosing a Timer:

How To Glue Fittings Onto PVC Pipe

How To Glue Fittings Onto Pvc Pipe Pr

Apply solvent cement to both ends of the pvc being joined.This will temporarily melt a thin layer of PVC, which will resolidify in seconds. Once the pieces are put together it will form a seamless airtight waterproof seal. You must work quickly. The process of gluing pvc is very simple, however it is unforgiving. The weld sets very fast and the only way to change it is to cut it off.

Follow the instructions below to ensure a proper connection:

Gluing PVC together, 3 steps

  1. Measure and cut – To make sure the pipe will be correctly seated in its fitting you will need to measure the distance between the shoulders on each end of the pipe fitting. You will then transfer the measurement to the pipe. Make a straight cut with a hacksaw. Scrape the inside of the cut smooth with a utility knife.
  2. Prime – Spread pvc cement primer on the outside of the pvc pipe. Then spread the pvc cement primer to the inside of the fitting where the pvc will overlap.
  3. Dry fit – Next you will assemble all the pieces to ensure the pipe has been cut to the correct length. Make a reference mark from the pipe onto a fitting such as an elbow. The position on these fittings is critical.
  4. Glue – Now apply the cement to the primed areas on the inside of the fitting and to the outside of the pipe. The glue sets very fast, so make sure you are ready to join the pvc before applying the glue.
  5. Push and twist – Slide the pvc pipe until it hits the fitting’s shoulder. Then give it a ¼-inch turn to spread the glue and speed its cure. If you’re attaching a fitting, push it in with the reference marks slightly out of register, then turn the fitting to align the marks.
  6. Hold – Hold the connection together for 30 seconds.
  7. Wipe – Clean off any excess cement by wiping it with a dry rag.

How To Connect A Plastic Pipe To A Metal Pipe

How To Connect A Plastic Pipe To A Metal Pipe Pr

Connecting a plastic pipe to a metal pipe using a threaded connection is possible as long as you are connecting a plastic male thread to a metal female thread. If the reverse is applied the joint will eventually leak. The is due to the different physical qualities between the two materials and the way in which the threads are designed. The female thread is slightly larger at the beginning and gradually gets smaller. The male thread has the opposite configuration. The male thread starts small and becomes larger in diameter as the threads progress. When you screw the male to the female the connection actually gets tighter. If you screw metal into plastic the hardness of the metal can and almost always causes fractures in the female plastic. Plastic female fittings tend to be thicker or reinforced as compensation. There are plastic female threaded fittings that have been reinforced to withstand stress fractures, these fittings are typically used in heavy duty commercial applications and irrigation for agriculture.

Use (PTFE) teflon tape to create a water tight seal on a male threaded plastic pipe.

Use (PTFE) Teflon Tape To Create A Water Tight Seal On A Male Threaded Plastic Pipe.

Shop For 3/4″ PTFE Teflon Tape

Shop For 1″ PTFE Teflon Tape

To connect a plastic male threaded pipe to a female metal pipe you will also need to use a sealer. A sealer helps “seal” the connection and also serves as a lubricant, allowing an easier assembly. Teflon tape also known as PTFE tape (polytetrafluoroethylene) or plumber’s tape is a film cut in different widths used in sealing pipe threads. Since the teflon tape is malleable and impermeable it acts similarly to a putty when it is compressed. The tape is most commonly white when used in plumbing applications, but it also comes in various colors. Colored teflon tape is often used to correspond to color coded pipe lines (ex. yellow for natural gas, green for oxygen etc.). Teflon tape also comes in different thickness. If the tape is very thin it will take more tape to cover the threads. For this reason we recommend purchasing the thicker tape because it tends to be more economical.

Sealing The Connection With Teflon Tape

  • To get the joints started easily leave the first thread on the male pipe without tape. Pull the tape taught but do not overstretch while you wrap the male threads of the pipe. If you can see the shape of the threads through the tape you are wrapping the pipe with the correct taughtness.
  • It should take 3-4 wraps on the male threads using a teflon tape with a good thickness to seal the pipes together well.
  • Wrap the male threads in the same direction as the female threads. If you wrap the pipe in the wrong direction you run the risk of the tape falling off while screwing the pipes together. If you are looking from the end of the male threads you will be wrapping the pipe clockwise.

Pipe Dope

We don’t recommend the use of pipe dope as a sealer for pipe connections in irrigation installations or repairs. Pipe dope can gum up your sprinklers and many irrigation manufacturers will not honor an existing warranty if pipe dope has been used as a sealant. In addition, some pipe dope created for metal pipe is caustic if used with plastic.

How to choose the right sprinkler head for your yard

How To Select The Right Sprinkler Head Pr

The type of heads utilized on a specific project are determined by the dimensions of the area being covered, the water pressure available for operation, and a variety of other factors. Choose between a spray or rotor.

Spray Heads

Spray heads spray water in specific circular patterns and can be changed at your discretion. Spacing between sprinklers varies depending upon the specific nozzle that is installed in the head. To operate efficiently, units should rarely be spaced further than 15 feet apart and should be supplied with 20-30 psi of water pressure. Ideal for smaller, fragmented, hard-to-reach areas, these heads discharge 2-3 times the water of a rotor.

Nozzle Charts


Rotor heads also disperse water in circular patterns. However, these are used to cover larger areas of uninterrupted space. Small rotors tend to cover radii of 15-52 feet and large rotors can be designed to cover radii of up to 100 feet. To operate efficiently, rotors need to be supplied with more water pressure than spray heads. The psi level should approximately equal the space between each installed unit. There are two basic types of rotary heads categorized by the mechanism that causes the sprinkler to rotate. These types are impact rotors and gear-driven rotors.

Click here to view Rotor Performance Charts


This is the most common design selected by consumers. Installed below the ground, the sprinkler head remains out of sight while inactive. Accordingly, it will not corrupt or compromise the aesthetic beauty of your landscape. Furthermore, there won’t be any pipes sticking out of the ground for you and your children to either destroy or trip over. Once the sprinkler system is turned on, a small portion of the head will emerge above the surface to disperse water to the irrigation area.


Installed above the ground on a riser, this sprinkler design should be utilized if you need to provide water to high-reaching plants. They are sometimes cheaper than pop-ups, but we do advise you that this is not the best selection for an area in the middle of the lawn if it can be avoided. Pop-ups can usually be designed to perform similar functions and will mitigate the potential problems caused by shrubs (risers) as described in the above paragraph. If a shrub is indeed needed, we encourage you to install them in the corner areas of the landscape not usually walked through.

Repair PVC Pipe Using Pipe Dream

Repair Pvc Pipe Using Pipe Dream Pr

Repairing and replacing PVC pipes has now been made simple and quick with the innovative Pipe Dream system. The most common type of repair you may have to make is to repair a crack in your PVC pipe. The prudent thing to do is to replace the damaged section of your pipe. Now there is a quick and easy solution that allows you to repair damaged pipe. Simply cut out the damaged area, apply your sealant and slip on Pipe Dream’s PVC replacement fitting. When you have the right tools, PVC pipe repair is easy! The old fashioned way takes time and energy to do the same repair. The Pipe Dream system has an elbow, a tee and a coupler. Save yourself time and money with a Pipe Dream fix! Click here to purchase Pipe Dream products.

How To Repair PVC Straight Connections Using Pipe Dream

Repairing PVC using Pipe Dream Straight step 1 Repairing PVC using Pipe Dream Straight step 2Repairing PVC using Pipe Dream Straight step 3 Repairing PVC using Pipe Dream Straight step 4

How To Repair PVC Elbow Connections Using Pipe Dream

Repairing PVC using Pipe Dream Elbow step 1 Repairing PVC using Pipe Dream Elbow step 2Repairing PVC using Pipe Dream Elbow step 3 Repairing PVC using Pipe Dream Elbow step 4

Choosing A Pump: What Size Pump Do I Need For My Irrigation System?

Choosing A Pump What Size Pump Do I Need For My Irrigation System Pr

The best way to ensure that you are getting the correct pump size for your irrigation system is to look at the pump curve, which is a performance chart provided by the pump manufacturer. This chart shows a pump�s performance curve over a range of pressures and flows. A Pump’s curves are measured and shown in “head in feet”. However, since most people don�t know how to convert “head in feet” to PSI, many pump curves also measure by psi, as well. (See Sample Pump Curve below)
Pump Curve Example 1
In order to read a pump curve, you need to know which zone in your irrigation system requires the highest psi and puts out the greatest flow. In a properly designed sprinkler system, each sprinkler head in a single zone should operate at the same pressure. After you have determined the required operating pressure for your most demanding zone, you need to calculate the total flow rate for the zone. This means adding up the amount of water (measured in gallons per minute, or GPM) each individual sprinkler head puts out in that single zone. For example, once I had determined what my most demanding zone was, and established what the operating pressure was, I would determine the flow rate of each sprinkler head in that zone, and add them together. So if I had three heads producing 3 GPM each, and two heads producing 5 GPM each, I would add up 3 GPM + 3 GPM + 3 GPM + 5 GPM + 5 GPM = 19 GPM. That is the total flow rate for that zone.
To determine the flow rate of each sprinkler head, you would need to look up each head on its respective manufacturer’s website. There you would find a flow chart for your sprinkler head, telling you how many GPM’s were being produced at different pressures. You would find the operating pressure your sprinkler head is operating at, and note the corresponding GPM on the chart. If every sprinkler head in that zone were exactly the same model from the same manufacturer, you would only have to do this once, and then multiply the GPM number by the number of heads you had in that zone.
After getting these two numbers, you would begin looking at pumps and checking their pump curves. Here are step-by-step instructions for reading a pump chart.

  1. Look in the column labeled �psi� and find the psi your most demanding zone operates at. For this example, we�ll say the zone operates at 35 psi. This point is marked in the highlighted column by the blue dot. (See Sample Pump Curve below)
    Pump Curve Example 2
  2. Look at the row labeled gallons per minute and find the total flow produced by your most demanding zone. We’ll say our zone requires 50 GPM. This point is marked in the highlighted row by the blue dot. (See Sample Pump Curve below)
    Pump Curve Example 3
  3. Follow the grid lines from the operating pressure point and the GPM point you have selected to the place on the chart where they intersect. This point is marked by the large blue dot. (See Sample Pump Curve below)
    Pump Curve Example 4
  4. Note which pumps’ curves arc over this point on the chart. Any pumps with curves that encompass this point are capable of meeting your system’s needs. All three pumps on this chart are capable of meeting these specs.
  5. Note the “sweet spot” or most efficient operating range on a pump’s curve (called the BEP, or Best Efficiency Point); this is located at the center or halfway point of the curve.
  6. If more than one pump curve corresponds with your system’s specs, select the pump with the BEP that lines up best with the point on the chart representing your system’s requirements. In this case, that would be Pump B; the BEP is directly over the point representing your system’s requirements.

Different Types Of Weather Sensors For Irrigation Controllers

Different Types Of Weather Sensors For Irrigation Controllers Pr

Sprinkler System Rain Sensors


Being able to water only when necessary is the ultimate goal of efficient irrigation scheduling. Today’s technology allows for installation of sensors which can measure soil moisture, rainfall totals and even shut systems down in freezing weather.

Rain Sensors

These units are mounted in a location exposed to normal rainfall, but outside the watering spray of the sprinkler system. There are different designs, but most have settings that allow some sort of measuring to take place. Rain will cause the system to remain off during or after an event if sufficient rainfall is measured. The settings can be adjusted so a light shower will not effect the system operation or eliminate a scheduled watering when rainfall is not sufficient to make up for a normal application.

Freeze Sensors

This type of sensor is very popular in commercial settings where ice on walkways or streets can cause liability. Freeze sensors have a place in the residential garden as well. Watering before or during heavy freezes can create problems with ice-laden shrubs and trees as well as creating the same liability concerns the commercial user experiences. The freeze sensor is mounted on an outside wall in a location most likely to experience freezing conditions. It will interrupt the signal to the control valves when temperatures fall below freezing. When conditions improve, the system will return to normal operation.

Wind Sensors

Look at any sprinkler’s performance chart and you’ll see that the data was gathered from tests conducted under zero wind conditions. Of course, in the real world, not every day is a calm one. And, while most sprinklers can still perform at close to peak efficiency with some type of breeze, when the air movement starts to get stronger, water coverage can get challenging, questionable and downright messy. It can even become a liability issue when windblown sprinklers soak pedestrian paths or roadways with passing cars.

Related Topics:

How To Install A Wireless Rain Sensor Sensors

How To Install A Wireless Rain Sensor Pr

Hunter Wireless Irrigation Rain Sensor

  1. Disconnect power to the irrigation system controller
  2. Always mount the reciever FIRST, adjacent to the controller with either the screws provided or double-sided foam tape
  3. Attach reciever control wires to the sensor inputs OR to break the valve common
  4. Disconnect common valve wire and common pump/master valve wire (if present)
  5. Attach white wire to common wire(s) with a wire connector
  6. Attach brown wire (only) to common terminal on controller
  7. Connect the red wires to controllers 24 VAC power source terminals
  8. Straighten the receiver antenna wire upward and the sensor/transmitter antenna wire downward
  9. While holding the sensor/transmitter at close range to the receiver, press and hold the spindle to test the wiring. the power, signal and sensor status indicators should be on
  10. Adjust the rainfall adjustment cap to desired rainfall activation amount
  11. Adjust the vent ring to the desired dry-out rate
  12. Mount the sensor/transmitter in an unobstructed location away from sprinklers
  13. Check to see if your irrigation / Sprinkler system works

Click here to shop for Wireless Rain Sensors!

General Instruction On How To install An Automatic Rain Sensor

General Instruction On How To Install An Automatic Rain Sensor Pr

Sprinkler System Rain Sensors

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a rain sensor
A homeowner can easily connect the most common type of rain sensor, a standard wired or wireless rain shut off device, to a typical 24-volt irrigation controller using simple hand tools and a ladder. Sensors with an electrical rating of 125-250 VAC for use with 110 or 220-volt controllers must be installed by a licensed electrician.
Each wired or wireless rain shut off device comes packed with instructions for a variety of installations–new, retrofit, same-brand, different-brand, sensor location, conduit, bare wire, with or without a bypass switch, etc. Here are some tips common to all installations.

Placement Of The Rain Sensor Is Extremely Important

It should be installed in an area that is unobstructed by trees, roof over hangs, or anything else that might block rain from getting to the sensor. If it is a wired sensor, placement is generally near the sprinkler controller. The wires should be connected inside the controller’s valve wiring panel. This allows for easier electrical trouble-shooting of the system as the sensor can be easily disconnected.
Wireless Irrigation Rain Sensor on Fence
Choose the best location for the sensor. If the sensor is wired, try to find a location close to the controller. Consider how the wire will be run from the controller. If the sensor is wireless, look for a location with few obstructions between the sensor and the receiver. The sensor should be in a location that closely matches ground conditions of the area it monitors. If the area is mostly shady, install in a shady location, but not directly under buildings or trees. If the area is sheltered from wind, then the sensor should be sheltered from wind as well. This is so that the hygrophonic disks (or cup) will dry at approximately the same rate as the soil. Ideally the sensor location should be chosen before the sensor is selected since various models come with unique mounting hardware.
Install the sensor plumb and in the upright position. The sensor is designed to capture rainfall from all directions. Don’t try to lean the sensor into the normal wind direction and don’t attach directly parallel to facia that is not plumb.

Irrigaiton Rain Sensor Placement examples

Avoid Roof, Trees Or Anything Else That Might Block Rain From Getting To The Sensor

Use waterproof connectors to join wires outdoors. Refer to the controller manual to determine whether to wire for a “normally open” or “normally closed” application, and use the appropriate wiring diagram from the sensor instructions for the sensor/controller combination.

After installation, the procedures for set-up and testing also vary by sensor model. Most sensors have two adjustments–one for amount of rain that can fall before the shut off is triggered and one to control how fast the disks or basin dry so that the system can resume operation. Usually further adjustments are made throughout the first season to achieve ideal settings.

Annual maintenance for most rain shut-off devices is simply a matter of normal inspection and cleaning. Occasionally the hygrophonic disks will wear out and need replacement. Wireless models will need new inexpensive batteries every five or ten years when the battery indicator starts blinking. Occasionally a sensor may be damaged by falling tree limbs or other physical forces and require replacement. A few minutes every year is all it takes to keep the sensors in top working order.

We offer a large selection of rain shut-off devices for residential and commercial irrigation systems. Hunter, Rainbird, and Toro brand wired and wireless sensors, connectors, all the necessary handtools for installation, and manufacturers’ product information manuals are just a click away.

Should You Use A Wireless Or Wired Rain Sensor For Your Sprinkler System?

Should You Use A Wireless Or Wired Rain Sensor For Your Sprinkler System Pr

Sprinkler System Rain Sensors

Many people who are considering purchasing a rain sensor are not sure whether to get a wired or wireless system. While they both perform the basic functions, they have different costs and features that can make deciding between the two difficult. However, no matter which one you choose, Installing either a wired or a wireless rain sensor is extremely easy to do and can be done by most any homeowner.

In addition to the benefits one can receive from using a rain sensor, a wired sensor is extremely inexpensive. It requires less maintenance and no battery replacement. On the other hand, because the system is wired, it limits the number of places and the distance where the rain sensor can be located. The wired rain sensor requires you to run the wire between the sensor and the sprinkler system controller. This means you need to mount the wired sensor in a location that will allow you to run the wire without it looking bad or without it being exposed to being cut by a weed wacker or other device.

Wireless rain sensors have many features that make it a viable option for a number of homeowners. Wireless sensors can be placed up to five-hundred feet away from the irrigation system. The no wire part allows you to mount it in more places and makes the installation look nicer and is easier to install since you do not need to worry about running wire from the sensor to the sprinkler system controller. These systems also allow for adjustable rain sensitivity, which allows homeowners to tailor the sensor for their particular climate and water needs. Wireless rain sensors also have selectable conservation settings, system override, a rain delay feature, and back-up modes in case of power outage. Yet, these features come at a price. Wireless rain sensors may be as much as 100% more than a wired sensor, plus you will need to change the battery in the sensor over time to keep it working. The wired sensor never needs battery replacement.

There are many reasons why people have been purchasing rain sensors in increasing numbers. These systems conserve water, save money, and help you maintain a pristine lawn by preventing over or under watering. For those who have budgetary concerns, a wired rain sensor provides the basic functions for a cheaper price. Yet, those who are able to afford the more expensive wireless rain sensor will have a much broader range of options that will allow them to tailor the system to their unique needs. After a few months, the system will have paid for itself.

How To Install A Hunter Mini Weather Station

How To Install A Hunter Mini Weather Station Pr

The three sensors combined on this product are for wind speed, rainfall and temperature (near-freezing conditions). Each sensor operates independently of the other; therefore, any or all of them may be switching at a given moment. See the separate product installation instructions for details on the Mini-Clik, Wind-Clik or Freeze-Clik operation and settings. Use only the “mounting” details contained on this sheet.


The weather station is designed to mount on a post of 2″ PVC pipe. However, any combination of pipe and fittings can be used to tailor an installation. The enclosed “reducer” fitting has two purposes: 1) It allows for the use of 1/2″ PVC pipe for shorter mounts, and 2) Screwed down onto surface (wood post or deck), it acts as a base for the weather station to fit onto.

Important: For most accurate temperature sensing, rotate the weather station so the thermostat portion points north.

Install A Hunter Mini Weather Station Figure 1
Install A Hunter Mini Weather Station Figure 2
Install A Hunter Mini Weather Station Figure 4



Wiring To The Hunter SRC Controller

The Mini-Weather Station connects directly to the SRC irrigation controller. This allows you to easily override the sensor by using the RUN (BYPASS SENSOR) position on the dial.

  1. Route the wires from the Mini-Weather Station up through the same opening used for valve wiring.
  2. Connect one wire to the RS terminal and other to the C terminal (See Figure 1).
  3. Connect the valve common to the RS terminal.

Wiring To The Hunter Pro-C Or ICC Controller

The Mini-Weather Station connects directly to the Pro-C or ICC irrigation controller. This allows you to easily override the sensor by using the Sensor switch on the front panel.

  1. Remove the jumper from the two “SEN” terminals.
  2. Route the wires from the rain sensor up through the same conduit opening used for valve wiring.
  3. Connect one wire to the terminal labeled “SEN” and the other wire to the other “SEN” terminal (See Figure 2).

Other 24 VAC Controllers

All three sensors are electrically connected in a series, so only two wires need to be used to connect to the irrigation controller. Use the green and silver (clear insulation) wires to hook up to normally-closed logic situations. Follow the wiring instructions in any of the separate sensor manuals, or place the two wires on the controller’s “sensor input” screw terminals if available (See Figure 4). For controllers with normally-open sensor inputs (most Toro models), please consult factory. Note: For extending wires, use wire 18AWG or heavier.

How To Increase Your Pump’s Lifespan

How To Increase Your Pumps Lifespan Pr

Smart Box

A Smart Box is a combined pump start relay and pressure sensor. In addition to connecting a pump to a 24V sprinkler timer, the Smart Box monitors pressure on the discharge side of the pump. If the pressure within the pump drops, the Smart Box begins a timer countdown. If the pressure has not recovered by the end of the countdown, the Smart Box shuts the pump down. The countdown timer automatically resets, so when the next pump cycle begins, if the pressure is still too low, the timer will countdown again, allowing the pump to rebuild pressure. If the pump is able to rebuild and maintain pressure, it will be allowed to run normally.

Pump Start Relay Connection Diagram

Start Box

Start Boxes combine a pump start relay with a thermal overload strip to protect your pump from excessive amperage draw. Drawing too many amps will cause your pump to blow a fuse or cause heat damage to the pump itself.Shop for The StartBox here.

Submersible Pump Shroud

A submersible pump shroud (or sleeve) is a casing that goes around a submersible pump, and forces the water to flow past the pump motor to reach the intake. This forced water circulation ensures adequate cooling for the motor, increasing your pump’s lifespan by preventing the motor from overheating.

Pump Overheat Protection Switch (Pump Housing)

This type of pump overheat protection switch fastens directly to the outside of the pump housing and can be wired in one of several ways: directly to one of the electrical supply lines (L1 or L2), directly to the pressure switch, directly to the pump start relay, directly to the pump station controller, or directly to the back of the motor.

Pump Overheat Protection Switch (Pump Start Relay)

This type of overheat protection switch fits inside pump control boxes, and monitors for loss of suction and power fluctuations. When abnormalities are sensed, the switch directly disconnects the pump motor. A recovery timer counts down to a designated time and then reconnects the pump motor. The recovery timer can be overridden by shutting off and then reapplying power to the switch and pump.

Recirculation Tank

A recirculation line prolongs your pump’s lifespan by preventing dead-heads. Recirculation lines run from the pump discharge line upstream of the discharge valve, back to the pump’s water source. Recirculation lines must be sized to allow enough flow through the pump to prevent overheating.

Cycle Stop Valve (CSV)

Cycle Stop Valves (CSV) increases your pump’s lifespan by working with a pressure tank and pressure switch (or pump start relay) to reduce your pump’s on/off cycles. The CSV mechanically controls the output flow from your pump.

For example, you would use a CSV set at 50 psi with a 40/60 psi pressure tank. When the water is switched on (for household or irrigation use), the pressure in the tank drops from 60 psi to 40 psi as the water level in the tank decreases. Once the pressure in the tank reaches 40 psi, a signal is sent to the pump to switch on. This is where the CSV comes in. When the pump starts, the CSV opens wide, to allow the pressure tank to fill quickly. Once the pressure tank reaches 50 psi, the CSV closes partially, and keeps the pump’s output at 50 psi. This way, the pressure tank does not refill completely until water use at the house has stopped. Once the water is switched off at the house, the CSV closes. A small amount of water is bypassed from the inlet to the outlet of the CSV, which maintains proper cooling for the pump and slowly fills the remainder of the pressure tank. Once the tank is full, the pump switches off.

Without a CSV, the pump would continually cycle on and off for the duration of the water usage at the house: while sprinklers are running, the pressure tank would continually drop in pressure, switch the pump on, refill to the correct pressure, switch the pump off, and begin the cycle over again.

Atmospheric Vacuum Breaker(AVB) Or Anti-Siphon Valves For Irrigation Systems

Atmospheric Vacuum Breaker Pr

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Atmospheric Vacuum Breakers: Installation

Atmospheric vacuum breakers can be installed along with irrigation zone pipe. The irrigation site plan will indicate locations. They must be installed one on each zone downstream from the automatic zone control valves in an inconspicuous location protected from lawn equipment but accessible for maintenance. Atmospheric vacuum breakers must be installed a minimum of six inches above the highest outlet on the zone. Some local codes require twelve inches. Zone pipe may be copper, PVC, or Poly. Purchase the correct adapters for the type of pipe. Install the valve so that the inlet is positioned at the bottom, the bonnet at the top, and the outlet is centered at or above the minimum height requirement.

Automatic Anti-Siphon Zone Control Valves: Installation

Installation of anti-siphon automatic zone control valves is similar to underground installation with a few notable differences. Valves must be at least six inches higher than the highest outlet on the zone. The irrigation site plan will indicate the location of manifolds. Use a laser or string level find minimum height at the installation site. The manifold is installed in an open trench instead of a valve box.

Both the inlet and outlet on an anti-siphon automatic zone control valve are on the bottom of the valve. Find an arrow on the valve body that indicates direction of flow. The manifold is built exactly as for underground installation except that the length of pipe between each tee and corresponding valve inlet is the distance between the bottom of the trench and the required valve height. Allow room between valves for maintenance. Then the entire manifold is connected to the supply line with the tees’ center outlets vertical and the valves above ground.

Backfill carefully but firmly after testing the manifold and connecting lateral lines. As with all above-ground valves, a protective cover must be provided. Most jurisdictions allow a removable cover. If the cover is stationary, it must be roomy enough and the access door must be large enough to access all the valves with necessary tools for maintenance and repair.

Atmospheric Vacuum Breakers: Maintenance, Repair, And Replacement

Repair is necessary when the atmospheric vacuum breaker continuously or too frequently discharges water. In most cases, foreign material is preventing the check from seating firmly against the air gap. Remove the bonnet and check assembly. Rinse each part with clean water and inspect for damage. If no damage is found, reassemble and test. If necessary, obtain an atmospheric vacuum breaker repair kit consisting of all new internal parts. has these in all major brands ready to ship. Before replacing an atmospheric vacuum breaker, make sure local code still allows new installations of this type of backflow prevention device.

Irrigation Pumps And Alternative Water Sources

Irrigation Pumps And Alternative Water Sources Pr

Example of how alternate water sources, rain barrel at end of gutter.

A Simple Rain Water Catching System Collects Runoff From A Homes Gutters And Redirects It Into A Stored Tank Or “Cistern”.

What source of water will you use in your irrigation system? Most homeowners will use the water supply for their home. In some areas water is charged based on usage, and some states have specific restrictions concerning water usage. Certain communities have restrictions on how long and when water may be used for irrigation. In addition water used for landscaping purposes may be added to your sewer fees even though the water used does not drain into the sewer system. Many people have begun to tap into alternative sources of water to irrigate their landscape.

Sources of water that can be tapped into to supplement your municipal supply include wells, ponds, rainwater catching systems, and reused grey water (which includes bathing, dishes and laundry water). Ponds and wells are very simple to set up. Rainwater catching devices are little more in depth and by far the most involved is converting grey water into a viable irrigation water source.

Seeking an alternative water source to suit your irrigation needs will require the assistance of a master plumber or irrigation contractor to be installed safely. Using the correct pump for the job is also crucial and will require the assistance from a pump dealer. The pressure, size and type of pump are extremely important factors and will depend upon your irrigation plan. It’s best to bring a copy of your plan to a pump specialist for assistance or consult an irrigation contractor for a recommendation. The two main types of pumps that are used are deep-well and shallow-well.

Deep-Well Pumps

The most common type of deep well pump is called a jet pump.The pump is self contained and can be dropped into a well that is 75 feet deep or more using a power cord and a water line. There may be a separate tether that comes up out of the well also. This type of pump is practically silent because it operates underwater. You may appreciate how quite the pump runs when your sprinkler system comes on during the early morning hours.

Shallow-Well Pumps

A shallow-well jet pump works the same way as a deep-well pump but is made for water that is shallow or surface water. This type of pump is also quite when operating. Another type of pump that is used for shallow water is a suction pump. It is not as quiet as a jet pump. A suction pump sits at ground level and uses a hose to draw up the water. This type of pump is portable and easily serviced.

If the pump will be used solely for your sprinkler system you may not need a separate holding tank. It is crucial that the pump meets the pressure and flow of your irrigation plan. Do not buy a pump untill you have completed your plan. Backflow prevention is another feature that must be made if you plan on using non-potable water. Contact the proper municipality to determine what requirements are needed to meet local codes. Go to Backflow Prevention for more information.

Example of how alternate water sources, rain barrel at end of gutter.

Ponds Are An Excellent Source Of Irrigation Water. Consult A Pump Specialist For Help Picking The Right Pump For Your Irrigation Layout.

Ponds are an excellent source of water to be used in an irrigation system. If you want to utilize a pond or any type of surface water you will need a special pump to get the water to your irrigation system at the right pressure. One type of pump that can be used is a shallow-well pump, other variety of pumps can used as well. Consult a pump specialist for help to determine which pump will best suit your needs.

You can use rainwater to supplement your source of water for your sprinkler system. The simplest system collects runoff from your homes gutters and redirects the rainwater into a sealed holding tank. Diverters can be installed to direct the water back into the storm drains when the tank becomes full. “Sweepers” are used to keep twigs, leaves and debris out of the tank The sweeper will flush the first several gallons of water back into the storm drains. The rest of the water is collected and stored to be used later when needed. Rain water collection requires a pump to pressurize and move the water into your sprinkler system. Backflow prevention will be necessary if you are supplementing with your homes water supply. Even if this will be your sole source of water you must check with your local municipalities in regards to codes for installing a backflow preventer in some jurisdiction it will still be required.

Example of how alternate water sources, rain barrel at end of gutter.

Grey water, also known as sullage, is non-industrial waste water that has been generated from dish washing, laundry and bathing. Black water refers to water that contains sewage or toxic chemicals. White water is from groundwater or potable ” drinkable” water.

Grey water can be used as an alternative water source in your irrigation system. However it takes a lot of work, effort and money to use grey water to irrigate your landscape. Some communities are now supplying treated grey water through a separate delivery system to be used solely for landscape irrigation.To reclaim you grey water without municipal assistance requires major replumbing and constant attention to any potentially hazardous material being poured down the drains.

How Does A Pressure Tank Work?

How Does A Pressure Tank Work Pr

Picture of a pressure tank.

Pressure tanks store pressurized water that can be distributed to different areas. The tanks operate by using drops in pressure below a certain point to activate the pumps which replenish the water and raise the pressure. Pressure tanks help to elongate the pumps lifespan because they allow them to run when they are needed verses staying on. They also reduce water hammer instances because they help to keep the water in the irrigation lines at a constant pressure.

Pressure tanks are typically used in conjunction with private wells. The tanks provide consistent pressure to the home’s water system within a range of approximately 20 pounds per square inch (psi) and also act as reservoirs, holding extra water in the system. Most home water systems are set up so the pump turns on (cuts in) at 20, 30 or 40 psi and turns off (cuts out) at 40, 50 or 60 psi, respectively. There’s a diaphragm in the tank with pressurized air above the diaphragm and a water holding area below.

Pressure Tank, how it works picture 1.

As the water holding area fills, the diaphragm is forced up, increasing the pressure and charging the plumbing system with greater pressure.

Pressure Tank, how it works picture 2.

Once the system pressure reaches the pump cut out pressure the pump stops.

Pressure Tank, how it works picture 3.

Water is drawn from the pressure tank without the pump cutting in until enough water is removed from the water holding area to decrease the system pressure to the pump cut in level.

Example of how a pressure tank and pump work.

After the pump cut in level is reached the pump comes on and runs until the system pressure is equal to the pump cut out level.

The tank allows water to be drawn from the system without the need for the pump to cycle on and off each time the water is turned on. Reducing on and off cycles cuts down on wear and tear and prolongs the pump’s life. When choosing a pressure tank you will need to know the gallons per hour (gph) your pump pushes in your plumbing system and the number of plumbing fixtures, including outside spigots, in the system.

Most manufacturers produce a chart that you can plug those numbers into to size your pressure tank. Just remember that if you’re in doubt about the size tank you need, it’s always better to go with larger pressure tanks. Larger tanks hold more water and reduce the number of times the pump is required to cycle on and off.

Recommended Irrigation Sensors from Sprinkler Warehouse

Recommended Irrigation Sensors From Sprinkler Warehouse Pr










Sprinkler Warehouse is here to assist those customers unsure of the sprinkler parts or irrigation supplies they need. Below you will find the most reliable irrigation products that Sprinkler Warehouse recommends.


    : These products are the best quality that money can offer with high-end features and benefits. When you want the best of the best, these products are for you!


    : These products have all the features typically used on residential and light commercial properties at a price that gives you the most bang for your buck. These are the most commonly used items.


    : If cost is your primary concern, these products focus on basic features to get the job done. Find what you need without breaking your budget!

  • Rain sensors keep your system off when its raining.
  • Restrict your system during freezing temperatures with a freeze sensor.
  • Go wireless if your situation permits – makes installation quick and easy!
  • Rain sensors are a must on any irrigation system, after all, who wants to have their sprinklers running while it�s raining or has just stopped?
  • Mounting any sensor is easy. They can be mounted on an eve, gutter, wall or fence.

SENSORS The ability to water only when necessary is the ultimate goal of efficient irrigation scheduling. Today’s technology allows for installation of sensors which can measure soil moisture, rainfall totals and even shut systems down in freezing weather.Rain Sensor units are mounted in a location exposed to normal rainfall, but outside the watering spray of the sprinkler system. Freeze Sensors are very popular in commercial settings where ice on walkways or streets can cause liability. Freeze sensors have a place in the residential garden as well.

What Is A Pump Start Relay?

What Is A Pump Start Relay Pr

Pump Start Relay Picture

Click Here To Purchase A Pump Start Relay

A pump start relay is an electrical device that allows your irrigation timer to communicate with the pump. This device is imperative when you are using a pump to supply water to your irrigation system. Pumps are built to use normal house currents; the relay changes the irrigation timer to normal household voltage. Pump start relays must be mounted at a minimum of 15 feet from the timer and pump to avoid electrical any interference that could cause a malfunction.

When a pump is to be operated by the controller, a pump start relay must be used.

To connect the pump start relay:

  1. Route a wire pair from the pump relay into the controller housing.
  2. Connect a common wire to the terminal slot C (Common) and the remaining wire from the pump relay to the P/MV screw slot.

WARNING: Do not connect the controller directly to the pump. The controller will be damaged.

How to Wire a Pump Start Relay

How To Wire A Pump Start Relay